WA Early History

ROYAL PERTH HOSPITAL & MEDICAL SYSTEM of Western Australia from its first mention and foundation to the present day (1828) onwards..

By Edmond Owen-Humphreys, Archivist, part time of Royal Perth Museum, Ex shift, engineering personnel and marine engineer. Inspired by the Curator Janet Bryant, and help from Esther Gabriel research by both her and Sue Reid………. Sept. 2007.


PART ONE From Settlement to Hospital Planning.

During the same period instructions were given to New South Wales in April of 1826 to extend the Penal Colony to the West Coast taking convicts to the area we now know as Albany, the ship “AMITY” sailed via Hobart Town encountering foul weather en route under the command of Lt. Festing, arriving on Christmas Day 1826, and anchored at the foot of Mt. Melville, the settlement named Fredericktown.  A settlement was built under the Command of Major Edmond Lockyer, besides the 50 convicts, and soldiers plus wives, were Edmund son of the major as store keeper, Also Captain John Wakefield, first Surgeon in W.A. Isaac Scott Nind, Mr. Dennis Dineen, (Blacksmith), Mr. James Shuttlleworth, (Carpenter), Mr. John Ryan, (Sawyer) Mr. John Brown, (Gardener).

January 21st. 1827 Fredericktown site proclaimed for possession for the Crown. By which time 10 buildings had been built; the convicts were housed under canvas.

Captain Collett Barker took over from Lockyer, he was the first person to really build up a peace and working relationship with the natives in Australia.

By 1829 a four room infirmary and surgeon’s resident had been built, by Sleeman Lt. General, plus a large new Commissariat Store between the old store and Comm. Residence. On receiving information of the progress of the Albany settlement Stirling demanded that the settlement should close as it was more important than Fremantle as a port, due to the fact that the Swan River entrance was blocked by reefs causing no access to the river and Perth.
In February 1831 he won his case, the “Isabella” was dispatched with troops to take stock and close the settlement, at King Georges Sound, returning same to Swan. Numerous convicts left of their own accord no effort was made to catch them, One settler Mr. Thomas Newell an ex convict stayed on, after the hand over from New South Wales of the site to Swan Settlement, on March 19th 1831.which defeated Stirlings plans, as the settlement was later rebuilt as a transit town for the shipping industry.

From Collet Barter Journals – N.S.Wales Archives of 1830.

Establishment of Albany. As previously mentioned the “Amity” sailed for the Sound on November the 9th 1826, via Port Dalrymple and Hobart for water and stores, the surgeon was John Scott Nind, in the party were 2 military officers, 18 rank and file soldiers, 27 convicts, the soldiers came from the 57 Regiment., the first women to the settlement were Mrs. Ann Wood, and Mrs. Sarah Woods, and 5 children, wives of soldiers. The convicts were all chosen for their high level of skill, in their trade, the first patient was one Denis Dinen he was speared three times by Aboriginals, over a mistaken identity.

Capt C.H. Fremantle took possession of W.A. on May 2nd 1829, on June 1st. “Parmelia” arrived with Sterling and settlers at Swan, Lt. Joseph Wakfield took command from Lt. Lockyer who was recalled to Sydney, then Lt.George Sleeman, then again Capt. Collet Barker ex 39 regiment, by July 1829 ten substantial buildings were built, a new four room stone house among them, and an infirmary for the surgeon, plus a new commissariat store, near the Commander’s House. The doctor treated mostly scurvy, with the juice of wild celery, In August 1828 I.S. Nind suffered from psychological strain, he resigned his relief came out in March 1829. Nind became argumentive and had a beakdown, he was returned to Sydney and dismissed from the service as unfit and went back to England. Dr. Thomas Brandwoon Wilson took his place (1792 -1843), a naval surgeon arrived in Swan in 1829 with Baker, he explored the area, Wilson’s Inlet is named after him, Mokari Aboriginal assistant to Nimd also served for Wilson. On March 7th. 1831, King George Sound was made part of Swan Colony, Thomas Newell stayed at the Sound and was impressed by his report, in January Stirling visited he spent the summer of 1831/’32 there and grudgingly was impressed, he renamed a river Kaglan and re named the settlement Albany. Sterling got his way on the 31st.January 1831 Albany closed as a penal settlement “Isabella” sailed to Swan then Albany with 21 military soldiers of the 63rd. Regiment to evacuate the Sound, many ex convicts had left, no attempt was made to catch them, some people stayed in Albany after the evacuation in March of 1831.

Stirling then appointed Dr. Alexander Collie as Albany’s first Resident Magistrate at a salary of 7s 6d. a day. Collie (1793-1835), he was the surgeon of the “Sulphur” arrived on September 1830. At Albany arrived April 1831, at first he found the appointment pleasant, he daily attended medical needs of European and Aboriginals, supervised the Government Farm, he eventually became irritated with his isolation and he explored the district. In November 1832 he returned to Perth and was given the job of Colonial Surgeon, his place was taken tempory by Lt. Donald H. Macleod of the 63 Regiment.

Back in England Nind published an account on the virtues of the Sound, it seems he had recovered from his illness. Barker was recalled to Perth and sent up the Murray River to explore he was the most excellent commandant of the settlement and was on good terms with the local natives, he was speared to death by members of a race he treated so humanely, he is commemorated by the name Mt. Barker in W.A.

In 1830 they came to settle Augusta, by sea in HMS. Sulphur, on August 29th .led by Ensign David H. Macdonald and Sergeant John Woods, with Corporal Joseph Madhill of the 63rd. regiment, plus 20 soldiers, there were a dozen settlers with four women and six children, due to the sandy condition of the soil the settlement failed, the doctor for the settlement was Dr.Charles Simmons. He was relieved by Dr. Alfred Green a year later. The settlement failed by 1850, it was resettled.

Historical Records of Australia, Series 111, Vol.6. & 12, Series 1, Vol. 13

ESTABLISHMENT of New Holland / Swan River Settlement;

1827 March James Stirling visit to area and report to British Government resulted in the settlement to the area.

1828 November 5. Sir George Murray, Government Secretary was instructed by H.M. George IV, to settle the west coast of New South Wales. He ordered a Naval Forces at Cape Town to dispatch a ship to take possession of the western side of New Holland, a dispatch was sent by Sect. John Barrow for H.M.S. Tweed on 7th November to take possession and remain in Cockburn Sound, they were to construct huts, dwellings Taken from for troops, messing and medical facilities.{first mention of hospital C.H.Fremantle’s in Western Australia} Diary & Letters However Cape Town, Commodore Schomberg CB, ignored the order.. Nov.7 / Aug. 28. H.M.S. “Challenger” under Capt. H. Fremantle was dispatched from Spithead, along with navy sloop “Sulphur”and merchant transport “Parmelia” with settlers and troops with orders to superintend the said settlement. December 5th Instructions written regarding the Home Government for the Colony of Swan River in the letters it also stated that there would be no convicts and the withdrawal of Convicts and Soldiers from King Georges Sound (Which was settled earlier as a staging port en route to Botany Bay.) SRO. Was. 1182; Con. 391/19.

1829 27 April. H.M.S.“Challenger” under Capt. Fremantle, he landed 25 people and started construction in Cockburn sound area.

May, 2nd. Stirling took formal possession of W. Australia for his Britannic Majesty.  A settlement now being well under construction as per instructions. 1829, February. “Parmelia” left England but was delayed off Garden Island she arrived on May 31st. and anchored after twice running aground on trying to enter the Swan estuary, to Bathers Bay area, she was observed by the Army post on Carnac Island, who sent a long boat to assist her with berthing directions, however she had run hard and fast before the  long boat arrived to assist.

Some of the Passengers, Government Employees on board Ship.; Capt J.H. Luscombe’s “Parmelia” Ships Manifest.; 2/1829. CO 18 Vol. 3/19 – 20.

  • Capt. Stirling, future Governor;
  • Mr. Peter Nicholas Brown, Colonial Secretary.
  • Mr. J. Morgan, Colonial Store keeper.,
  • Commander. M.J. Currie, R. N. Harbor Master and Wife an artist.
  • Mr. J. S. Roe, Government Surveyor.
  • Mr. H. Sutherland, Assistant Surveyor.
  • Mr. William Sheldon, Colonial Clerk.
  • Mr. J. Drummond, Horticulturalist.
  • Mr. Chas Simmons, Surgeon.
  • Mr. Tully Daly, Assistant Surgeon.
  • Mr. J. Smith, Boat builder.
  • Mr. William Hocking, Bricklayer.
  • Mr. Alex Fandam, Cooper.
  • Mr. Thomas Davies, Black Smith.

Besides the above there were wives, servants and children a total of 67 in all with 24 children half of these were 10 years old or younger.

June 2. “Parmelia” ship arrived with Capt. Stirling, as Governor, landed his People on Garden Island, in contradiction to government orders and C.H.Fremantle set up a camp, in tents including a hospital tent. Diary. Capt. Stirling issued an order regarding the first treatment of sick patients and admittance to the hospital, which can be noted that the hospital document written in 1829 on board the “Parmelia” proclaimed it as the First Government owned hospital in the British Empire, for civilian usage.  ( Poor Law for poor civilians was not introduced till 1834.)

Colonial Surgeon Dr. Charles Simmons came out on the “Parmelia” with two complete Medical panniers, utensils, bedding, hospital dresses Stirlingette’s Lr etc and first iron bedsteads in use in a civil hospital, (Navy, Army
records instructions from Duke of Wellington, Prime Minister ex-military stock.) May 6th. To 15 beds delivered; plus two military hospital marquees (18 bed size) Simmons. Both hospitals, civil and military in Cockburn received half the stores, one army marquee was erected on Garden Island.. (Ship’s loading/Bill re equipment/ ex England).

May 2nd 1829. Instruction for the Colonial Surgeon written by Stirling on board the “Parmelia” when at sea regarding the care of persons of the colony. (CSO Records, Vol.No.1 Pages 39).

June 11/25. First known patients suffered from food poisoning were admitted in Cockburn Sound (1 st mainland Military hospital), from eating wild nuts, both hospitals were under the Colonial Surgeon, Dr Charles Simmons.
First Medical Report July 13 William Parsons, died by effect of falling from a tree, a member of the crew of HMS “Success, ( Navy List, D of D.London.)  Above mentioned briefly in a report no names Swan R. Papers Vol.10.  Captain Currie of the 63rd Regiment while cleaning his pistol on 25th, Plus to shot himself by accident in the head at Cockburn Sound. Report Oct 3. Due to the clement summer months there were no cases till the weather
declined come September. Recorded some cases of Diahorea plus a birth of a baby boy to a soldiers wife. ( No records of first born W.A. baby)

September. The Garden Isl. Camp moved up the Swan River and put up camp at Mt. Elisa, the tent hospital was in use there as two soldiers were Monthly reports. admitted with scurvy, a report sent to Capt. Irwin, C/o. of the 63rd.  Regiment resulted in requests for fresh vegetables from Stirling, for civil and military use to combat scurvy, from the Fremantle stores at Bathers Bay; (The Commissariat Stores were built in 1851, all stores were sent up
Perth by river traffic, weather permitting, the Colony’s money was held here as well).As no fresh vegetables were available in the new colony ¾ of a pint of wine was issued to each person daily to combat the salt pork, the main food issued to all at this early stage.

1829 July.9. Dr William Lane Milligan appointed Assistant Surgeon to the 63rd. June 1.st. Regiment which was to serve at Swan River; to assist Dr. Daly, who had Letter from sailed with the ‘Parmelia” and “Sulphur” in February, with the troops, Colonial. Sect. Daly unfortunately drowned in Cape Town, along with his daughter his wife came out to Perth, maiden name Kelsall later returning to England. In his place a hospital assistant Horatio Holden replaced him, but not for long returning to South Africa in February 1830. The hospital closed in the summer months, due to lack of patients. See Papers/ letters re above Swan R. Papers Vol. 9.

Other Medical Doctors who arrived in 1829:-

  • Surgeon Fowler, from the wreck of the “Marquis of Angles” he left for Sydney, it was reported he died from alcoholic poison.
  • Dr. Whatley was drowned in the Swan while attempting to ferry a cow across the river in a small boat, the cow made the crossing unscathed.
  • Surgeon Randall Griffiths’s his wife left him after arrival, he followed her to Hobart Town but died there shortly after.
  • Naval Surgeon, Alexander Collie, expected the post of King George Sound (Albany).he gained the reputation as a humane friend of the native Aborigines.
  • Surgeon Thomas Harrison, was a resident surgeon in Fremantle, 1829 to 1834 when he retired, died 1846.

FOUNDATION of GILFORD. (The Island Town ).


The following day Sterling took up 4,000 acres adjoining the proposed Town site of Gilford it was named after the town his fathering law represented as MP in the English parliament and his estate was named “Woodbridge” after his wife’s birth place, Ellen Mangles the daughter of James Mangles. Amongst the first settlers were six Medical Practitioners, doctors Whitley and Harris on the east of the Swan and Milligan and Hinds west side with Foley and Cowcher towards Guildford.

The plan of Perth and Fremantle was done by Ensign Dale and three privates from the 63 Regiment completed on 7th. December. He then began a survey of the Helena River and district.. From 15th. December 1829  H.C.Sutherland surveyor started the Guilford plans of them to have a port up river from the town site of Perth which would serve as jumping of point for boats carrying produce from the Swan area to Fremantle and Perth and so avoid the long journey by road through quick sands and dunes by road. (known as Bassendean Dunes).
After the plan was drawn-up nearly all the new settlers were farmers, the following year 1830 Peel’s settlers and servants who had failed in there plan also came to Guilford and area, over the next two years many settled
there, William Barnes in August of 1830 was the first, he was allotted No.40 Allotment in the proposed town site.
The most notable new arrival was Dr. Jospt Harris who arrived in Fremantle on January 27th.1833 he was delayed by the time he arrived Free Grants were no longer issued, he appealed to the then Secretary of State and was given
5,120 acres under the old system, he became famous as an explorer later in life he settled in the Williams District. Little progress was made for the next 20 years other than to roads and bridges, not until the introduction of convicts when a hospital was built plus many of the buildings connected to the convicts. On the York Road and at York, also at Toodyay and en route on the Toodyay Road convict stations were built .The infirmary at Guildford took 10 men the other ones were smaller only catering for a few patients. The one at Guilford had a separate dispencarey and was situated north of the depot building on Meadow Streat.next to the proposed Mechanics Institute.

1830, Jan. 31. Milligan arrived at Swan River on the “Wanstead” and took the post as Military Surgeon; he also brought out his wife, Elizabeth, daughter Anna, Nephew Francis, and two servants plus investment property which under settlement condition entitled him land grants, granted 2,560 acres. Ships inventory. 1831. Colonel James Hanson. In a report to the British Government stated that Albany climate would be invaluable for the site of a sanitarium for people from Perth and India.

Due to his visit to W.A. in October..Ibid..p.p. 25 & 32. Documentation published Oct.1833. Led to donations for the project, a ship was purchased “Mercury” in Calcutta, sailing in March 1834 with 70 personnel on board to set up a settlement and sanatorium in Albany unfortunately the ship en route disappeared, the scheme lapsed. PG. 1/3/1834; 5/4/1834; 4/10/1834; 1/11/1834; & the news paper Sydney Australian. 21/4. 1830 March Took up military medical hospital duties, and also attended civil medical Letter from Gov. duties, at the military barracks; looking to the future for his civil medical June 15th. practice he took Lot.26 on the corner of St. George’s Terrace and Mount Street, the building was not built till 1831, he never practiced privately.

1830 July 7. Milligan as Army Surgeon lived in the Army military barracks, Perth. He wrote to Stirling, requesting permission to practice medicine as a private practice, this application was made in Western Australia to Government it was never used. Milligan retired from the Army due to ill health February 1847, the family lived in Nuneaton, England, he died September 1st. 1851, at St. Johns Wood, London, from a brain tumor; ( adjacent to Portman Street Army Barracks, Hyde Park.)..

Letters from Over the same period Dr. Simmons was absent touring the South West, Col. Surgeon commissioned by the Government to inspect the new settlements. Dr. Milligan was forced to look after the troops, and the civil population, who were struck down by scurvy, fever and dysentery, seasonal complaints and dysentery. He wrote a letter of complaint asking Governor Stirling, for Medical facilities the out come being the Army Stores supplied
another hospital marquee large enough to accommodate 18 beds, plus much needed hospital equipment.

July/. Hospital set up in Cathedral Avenue, Perth, which was the First Colonial Hospital, by the end of August 110 patients had been treated, mostly out patients. Although six admitted had died after treatment. It was Gov. Gazet stated that the marquee was to draughty and cold so a building was used Of April. on the same site rented by Governor Stirling, one “Palmer’s Hut” rented for also 4 shillings a week and used only for 12 months being too small. The first case was Robert Wilson on June 15th. Milligan’s assistant being Dr. Green Medical who also looked after the hospital stores, he was brought up from Augusta, Reports. having come out on the “Warrior” , February 1830, he was responsible for all the supplies borrowed from the Army, and acted as a nurse. Alfred Green however liked the drink and in 1832 returned to Augusta after Milligan left. For his services he was paid 5 Shillings a day..
During its operation 19 cases admitted, 10 with scurvy of which 6 died.

1840 Colony of PERTH, recognized by British Government. (Outline of type of Government in Western Australia, 1830 / 1890). BL 4098 Vol. 40

Under control of a Governor. and small Executive Council; in 1831 the Executive also acted as a Legislative Council 1832 First meeting on February 7th.under Governor. Frederick Chidley Irwin, (63 Reg.) and four Government employees. BL.Vol.192. . Seven years later the Legislative was increased by adding four free colonists to nine members, including the Governor. No further progress in self government was made during the transportation period; in 1870 Nominee Legislative Council was introduced; 1890 Responsible Government was Established agitation for which was begun in 1873 but the British Imperial Government did not consider the population large enough to reap the full benefits of such a privilege. In 1887 agitation was revived and on receiving the petition from a unanimous Council, the Imperial Parliament granted the request of Responsible Government plus Governor Sir William Robinson proclaimed the new Bill and the New Constitution on the Esplanade to the Public on October 21st. 1890.

1831 March * A permanent Army Hospital of bricks was proposed building started on the site, opposite, just north of the present Government House, at a cost of Gov. Gazet. 460 pounds, the bricks being quarried in East Perth, built on the frontage of St. Georges Terrace, between Barrack and Pier Streets, the Hospital and out buildings occupied a quarter of the Army Military Depot.. April. The marquee was disbanded and both army and civil population were treated in the new hospital from two separate accounts of medicine, civil and military being shared at this time, to assist was Dr. Alfred Green.
* ( See Army Military Depot and Hospital on Map of Perth of 1848 also Dept of Lands & Surveys 241/3850, Item 34A-l. 37A-D. For detailed plans. ).

1831 October Dr. Simmons died, of consumption, after visiting York area, died in Perth on 21st, due to his death, Milligan had to assume his duties as well, visiting the army outpost and settler’s groups, besides Perth, Fremantle, Guildford and Upper Swan; Milligan was only given temporary position of Colonial Surgeon. During this period he was paid an extra 10 Shillings a day.  Rates of pay for duties see C.S.O. Record Vol.4F letters 833.

1832 Dr. Alex Collie was appointed as Colonial Surgeon, Milligan resumed his military duties, Collie came out as the Naval Surgeon, he came out on the “Sulphur” in 1829, and instigated the formation of a new medical establishment for civilians in George Embleton’s building in Perth, most of which were out patients, serious cases treated at home, the first full time nurse was also employed to assist, and cook. Officially in 1832 there was no proper civilian hospital in Perth, though two military ones, one in Perth, another one at Fremantle under Milligan where Thomas Harrison was the surgeon between 1829 to 1834.
George Embleton lease and conditions of same, C.S.O. Records Vol. 28. Collie appointment Swan R. Papers Vol.10.

The Hospital was for men only, females had to be billeted out as required. However Collie went against this trend by admitting a woman with a spear wound not a popular move which did not go down very well as she was
also an Aborigine.

1830 Stirling spent the summer down in Fredericktown exploring the area and Kaglan River, he re named Fredericktown Albany and named a town site east as Wyndham, in Albany at this time was a four room hospital, built by New South Wales Colonial Government. By 1834 the population in Albany had grown with new settlers to 70 though the population at times due to the Whaling season was four times as large. Control of the district was under Lt. Carew appointed by the Governor.

1832 – 1833. Fredrick Chipley Irwin Governor. Again in 1847 – 1848, Bat. Vol.192.  He was an ex soldier of 63 Regiment, Major Commanding the garrison of Swan in 1835. (1788 born – 1860 died), (Bat.Lib. ACC 1138 A ).
Capt. Mark J.Currie Harbor Master (1795-1874) left Fremantle to take up his Naval duties, in August on H.M.S. Sulphur. During his service in W.A. Colony he was also responsible for the allocation of land grants. His wife Jane an artist sketched views of the new settlement. 1832 February 7th. First meeting of the Legislative Council, though as an unofficial Government permanent structure. BL. 4098. Vol.40. 1834 Legislative Council Set Up. In a building near the Government House on St. Georges Terrace, by order of the British Government, Governor Stirling, Captain Daniel, 63 Regt. and Mr. Broun and Mr. Roe, were the first Council Members representing the Navy, Army and civilians.

1834 Sept. The contract for Embleton’s building lapsed, no alternative was provided, probably due to an over sight on Collie’s part as he was an ill person and died of T.B. in 1835, on November 8th at Albany en route to England while returning home on leave.

During September 1833 the 63rd Regiment was partly relived by the 21st. .with orders to go to India, Milligan from this time onwards till he left spent all his time either at his property near Guildford or down at Fremantle. Leaving with his family on the “Merope” April 18th 1834. for India. He intended to return but never did.

1835. James Critchton the new Colonial Surgeon gave George Lazenby funds Letter & in 1836 to set up and open a Public dispensary, in a house adjacent to the Invoice. New Barracks, however it was not opened till April 1837, there is no further mention of this dispensary as an operational item. Also mentioned in the Government Gazette, August 5th 1837 that a payment was made of 17 pound 19 shill. & 10 pence.

1838. Four more people added to the Legislative Council, Civil Members.

1840 The property of David Corrigan half way along Murray Street was purchased and converted into a Native Hospital. Native Hospital. Lot No. V11. See Map 1845 – CSO. M12. Re letter from Governor‘s Secretary Peter .N. Brown to the Colonial Surgeon J. Critchton and that the same treatment should apply to them and care as the European patents in the Colonial Hospital.

1840 By demand and complaints from the settlers about lack of a hospital Critchton approached the new Governor Hutt for funds for a permanent hospital. Gov. Hutt would not spend funds to build one; he ordered in August that Henry Trigg should inspect the buildings on the corner of St. Georges and Irwin Street owned by George Fletcher Moore, he did so with Peter N. Brown on August 21st. for conversion to a hospital, Moore’s stable was selected, tenders called for. Thomas Smith was appointed, at a price of 49 pounds & 17 shillings, tenders for equipment were also advertised in September; the government cut back as much as they possibly could on spending, supplying the barest minimum of equipment.

1840 First issue of Perth news paper “Inquirer”. Which advertised items regarding tenders and admissions to the Colonial Hospital. etc. Tenders called for in the Government Gazette, for alterations and additions to buildings August 26th, called for supply of internal fittings September 11th. 1840. There were two tenders for the work on Mr. Moore’s stable submitted on August 26th to Mr. Trigg, the other quote was by Mr. W. Syred for 52 Pounds,
tender for Mr. Smith accepted September 2nd by letter on condition it must be completed by October 15th. or before. Lot.V/IVA. Irwin Street.

Correspondence In Book. 102/1176. Letter from Governor to Col. Surgeon.
November 15th.
Regarding enclosure dispatch of building key for new hospital plus a request for implementing and display of hospital’s rules, and to make detailed account of all equipment. First patient, Admitted Edward Murphy age 27, farm tenant on December 22nd he died on Christmas Day.

First Patient List Report.
Correspondence Out Book. March 31 st. 1841. Patient list of 9,(December 21st. 1840 to March 31st.1841). 4 x sailors, 3 x farmers, 1 x groom, 1 x laborer written by James Critchton the. Colonial Surgeon.

1841. Mr. Brown appointed as hospital attendant, his wife as nurse, pair paid 70, Pounds per annum, from January, accommodation and food supplied at the hospital. Critchton lobbied Governor Hutt for improvements but Hutt and Peter Broun Colonial Secretary would not spend any moneys on welfare services. The Hospital was classed as a Tax burden. Critchton went home on leave February 9th 1843. Joe Harris appointed May 31st. 1844. In May Gov. Hutt and Broun advertised for a new hospital to be built, it was never built. Tenders for proposed new hospital advertised in Government Gazette May 19th 1843.

Fall in exports prices on wool etc, lack of government funds.
Mentioned in the Legislative Council meeting of May 23rd, no new hospital.
1843, Correspondence Out, Report 63A.
September 7 th. Itemize report. List of equipment No.1 Dispensary, No.2 Hospital,
No. 3 Linen & Bedding and No .4 Kitchen Utensils from Colonial Surgeon.
Correspondence Out
October 11th. 184.3 Report from Assistant Colonial Surgeon regarding 6 x patients
Between (June 6th and October 6th.).

1847 J. Ferguson appointed Colonial Surgeon, he was one of the founders of
Australind colony arriving in 1842, he was a man of enterprise.
As a result of Public outrage over appalling conditions the new Scottish
1848 Colonial Surgeon John Fergunson requests funds for a new hospital by letter he also introduced chloroform to the hospital system in 1849. It
1849 was ordered from 28, Buckwell Street, Plymouth along with the corresponding equipment In the same year he appointed the first woman
employee to the hospital Miss McLaughlin as Cook.
July 2. Written orders from Colonial Secretary to Colonial Surgeon to attend to
Members of families of crews on vessels at Fremantle: also to attend with
reference to the military party stationed at Fremantle at the request of the
Colonial Government, but not to attend detachments on board vessels of
troops bound for other ports. (these services without further payment ).
CSO. 27 item 174.
July 10. Appointment of Mr. Herbert Harris as Hospital Attendant. Whole
Hospital equipment and stores under his control and responsibility, he was
appointed in the place of Mr. Thomas Keegan who was dismissed
through being drunk on duty and absent from duties.
July 19. Mr. Herbert Davies appointed as a Hospital Assistant.
(CSO. 27. items 180’s.).
1850’s Appointed a Nurse Cook, Frances Brown 1857 and a Head Nurse Mary
Gilbert, 1853 to 1856, she was often called Matron though there was no
Matron appointed till 1890 – Mary Nicolay being the first matron.
1856 Nurse J. Hannan was senior in charge till Frances Brown was appointed as
Head Nurse.

Originally a 5 year lease of the property, the walls, and roof were repaired,
the cellar was filled in, new drainage system built, an outside kitchen plus a
laundry built as lean-to, plus increased patient beds and new buildings a
dispensary and a new Annex also built.
C.S.O. Records Volume Letters Received Col. Sect. for above beds, etc,..
The patients were put on special diets to improve health, however there was
no night staff, left to themselves over night. Fremantle hospital was also
instructed not to send patients to the Colonial Hospital due to over crowding
and treat them locally. (From Letters ex Dr. Ferguson and the new Governor,
Fitzgerald ex Navy who helped as much as he could and was classed as extravagant .).

More admissions than they could handle 50 in first six months.
Land owners had persuaded the Government to introduce convicts, the
“Scandia” convict transport first arrival mid year, in June.
At the same time as the convicts came out the Enrolled Pensioner Guards
did plus their families, from 1864 they were the only military personnel in
Western Australia.
The Pensioner Guard numbered 2,500 including families all of which had to be housed and treated as needed by the small Colonial Hospital.
Convicts introduced to W. Australia from 1850 over 18 year period;
9,668, men, women and children, with all this man power all kinds of Government buildings would be built, roads and bridges first though.

The “Inquirer” news paper May 8th published an article condemning the hospitals patient treatment, or rather the lack of it at night and dirty state of
the patients and hospital, the “Inquirer” had another knock at the hospital on May 22nd.
Due to the news papers and public outrage again a site was chosen for the
future new hospital, Lots 3, 4 and 5 between Goderich Street, Victoria Square, Lord Street and Wellington Street, a suitable elevated place for
the hospital, with cool breezes from the river on top of the hill ..

The New Hospital Plan, as proposed and put fore wards.
The newly appointed Col. Sect. Frederick Barlee; Instructed Ferguson and Architect Richard Roach Jewell to look at the old Reveley’s Mill site and buildings to see if they were suitable, they were not, Jewell made the new plans for the hospital, but nothing happened for 18 months..

Plans were drawn up for the new Colonial Hospital at long last, these called
for a two-storey building fronting Goodrich Street, with a pleasant facade
and an imposing entrance, built on the pavilion plan with two wings separated by an administration block. One wing for females and one for men, the central block housed also the dispensary, surgery, medical rooms
and nurses rooms. The basement kitchen, scullery, stores and house keeper’s.. Privies and mortuary as out houses, water drawn from a well at
the hospitals rear, with bucket/ rope lifting apparatus supplied.
Tenders advertised in the “Government Gazette” for the iron work and joinery, rest of work done
by convicts, also adverts in local paper “Inquirer” October 16th. 1853.


Anderson, Ronald R. MC. M.O. Royal Perth Hosp. 1946 – 1961.
Anderson, Thomas L. MD. Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1926 – 1931.
Baker, Gilbert W. MD, MBBS, Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1916 – 1921.
Bowe, Ethel Jessie, Army/Matron. 1906–1961.Tutor Sister Perth Hosp.
Broun, Peter Nicholas, Civil Gov. 1797 – 1846.
Collie, Alexander, Naval / JP. 1793 – 1835. Col.Surg.
Crichton, James, MD, Army / Civil. 1815 – 1845. Ass.Col. Surg.
Dougan, Noel Kevin, JP, MB, BS. Civil / Mil. RAAF. M.O. Royal Perth Hosp. 1950 – 1957.
Ferguson, John, MD, Civil. 1802 – 1833. Col. Surg.
Green, Alfred, MD. 1805 – 1895. Appt. M.O.Perth Hosp, 1830.
Harris, Joseph, MD. Civil. 1789 – 1846. Col. Surg.
Keogh, Clara Ann. Assistant Matron. 21-6-1914 to 9-10-2006.
Lovegrove, Thomas H. MD, JP, Civil. – – – . Act.Col. Surg.
Lyttleton, John Prentergast, MD. Civil. 1793 – 1835.
Milligan, William Lane. Army. 1795 – 1851. Act.Col. Surg.
MacKenzie, Donald S. MD, DSO, Mil. / Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1922 -1926.
Moore, George Fletcher, Civil / Law. Advocate Gen. 1798 – 1886.
Muecke, Roy Le, MD, Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1937 – 1946.
Nicolay, Mary. Army / Matron. 1850 – 1939. Matron Perth Hosp.
Stewart, Hector Hamilton, MD, Civil / Army. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1931 –
Jewell, Richard Roach, Architect. 1810 – 1891.
Stirling, James, Captain, Navy / First Governor. 1791 – 1865.
Simmons, Charles, MD. 1801 – 1831. Col. Surg.
Sweet, Sidney. W, MD, Civil / Army. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1913 – 1916.
Thorburn Ian O’, MD, Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1934 – 1936.
Trethowan, Henry Markham, MB, Civil./ Army. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1936 – 1937.
Tymms, Herbert George. MD, BS, Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp.1906 – 1911
Webster, Alfred. MD, Civil. M.O. Perth Hosp. 1911 – 1913.
Waylen, Alfred Robert, MD, Civil. 1833 – 1901. Col. Surg.

PEOPLE CONNECTED With PERTH & its HOSPITAL. (Detailed Accounts)

BROUN, Peter Nicholas – 1797 – 1846. (Civil government).

Born in Gurnsey, Channel Islands.

Worked in Scotland as a Clerk
1825 married Caroline Simpson.
1828 Nominated as Secretary to James Stirling for the Swan River Colony.
1829 Appointed in January with a wage of 400 Pds. per annum.

Sailed on “Parmelia” with wife and two children, en route made up orders for the whole venture, Civil and Military to form the first establishment on Garden Island, including the landing of troops, settlers and stores and establishment of the camp site, including the first Administration Tent and Hospital Tent.

1829 August 12th. Arranged the accommodation for the Government in now Perth for his and other departments, made an outline for the future town site.
1830 January. He made his permanent home on the corner of Hay and Irwin Streets; he had brought out 500 Pounds worth of equipment and livestock so was
granted 9,626 acres of land, he took up land up the Upper Swan area, and named the property Bassendean after a property in Scotland.
Stirling also made him Treasurer the post held till 1832, he also opened the first Bank in the Colony and due to money shortages issued credit notes, Sterling had
made Colonial Printed money which helped him go bankrupt in 1834 so he had to
sell his Bassendean holdings.

1842 Elected to the first Perth Town Trust, and played a considerable part in the
Design and plan of the city, he was also against the importation of convict labor
to the Swan but was over ruled.
Most of the early letters regarding the early Colonial Hospital were written by him plus half of the property for the hospital site at Moore’s Stables he owned.
As the founder of the Public Services in Western Australia, there are 178 Volumes of his Documents and Letters held at the Battye Library.

1846 On November 5th. He died in Fremantle, having been frail for a number
of years, and served the Colony for 17 years in office. The Government never gave his wife a pension, she sailed to England with all his diaries to be published
as books in the S.V. “Hindoo” which was unfortunately burnt at sea, the diaries all were lost, Caroline Broun was saved.



STIRLING, James – 1791 – 1865. (Naval & Civil ).

Born, Surrey. January 28th. Died Guildford, Surrey, April 22nd. 1865.

He was the 5th.son of eight children, of Andrew Stirling and mother Anne
nee Stirling, his fathers 2nd cousin. Father originated from Drumpellier in Lanakshire mother from Faskine.

Entered the British Royal Navy at the age of 12, in 1803, as a volunteer
His first vessel the store ship “Camel” bound for the West Indies. Followed by
Midshipman of HMS “Hercules”, serving in the Napoleonic Wars, on HMS
“Sampson” and “Diadem”, promoted Lieutenant in the Warspite 1809 and Flag
Lieutenant in 1811. February 1812 received his first command the sloop
“Moselle” followed by the “Brazen” taking part in the War of 1812.
Was promoted through the officer ranks, to Captain by 1826.
As Captain of the “Success” sailed for New South Wales in 1827.

Darling was instructed to explore eastwards to find a place to re locate the settlers
of Melville Island, on Stirlings arrival in N. S. Wales he ordered him to do so the
season’s weather was not favorable to such an undertaking Stirling asked to be allowed to explore the Swan River his request was granted, on January 17th. 1827 he sailed for the west coast.
On March 6th he reached the Swan River and re examined the area previously
explored by Baudin’s expedition in 1801.
Stirling was deeply impressed by the possibilities of the country from the standpoint of colonization, his report on the area set out all the items in favor
of settlers.
On the strength of his report Darling recommended the establishment of a
Settlement, he also told the Colonial Office that the French might take it over,
but the Colonial Office rejected the idea on the grounds of economy.

In Surrey on his return to England he became acquainted with the Mangles family
Sterling married Ellen she was the 3rd daughter of the director of the East India
Company, due to this family interest it attracted investors and eventually won British government support for his plan to colonize the Swan area.
Stirling married Ellen at Stoke Church, Guildford on September 3rd. 1823, she
was only 16 years old. The marriage produced 11 children, 6 daughters and 5 sons.

He sailed with his family and settlers on the “Parmelia” June 18th 1829 the new Colony was proclaimed, he was ruler as Lieutenant-governor till 1831 when he was made full Governor. Given a grant of 100,000 acres from the Crown. His
own fortunes were inextricably entwined with those of his settlers.

By the end of the year 18 vessels had arrived bringing out 850 emigrants, this
raised the population to 1,029

In 1834 he personally led a bloody raid against the natives of the Nyungar group
near Pinjarra killing around 30 natives.

The once very popular Governor suffered increasing criticism for his imperious
and autocratic administration. Frustrated by the apparent lack of progress in the
Swan Colony he resigned his post having built and founded Guildford on Swan.
He sailed from Fremantle in 1839, never to return.

Stirling resumed his Naval career once back in England
On his return from the new Colony in 1839 he serving ashore in the Navy he was appointed to command the “Indus” from 1840 to 1844, then 1847 to 1850 the “Howe” in the Mediteranean.1851 promoted to Admiral serving at the Admiralty being sent out to China as Commander in Chief, during this period he negotiated a treaty with Japan signed on October 14th 1854 but was recalled to London.
Promoted Vice Admiral in August 1857 an Admiral in November 1862.

He retired to the town of Guildford, Surrey, England, and died there in 1865 at the
Age of 74.
His wife Ellen died in 1871, both were buried at Stoke Church graveyard, a Social
Centre and hall there is named in their honor “The Stirling Centre” at Guildford.

His land granted in the Beverly area was re-acquired by the Government of W.A.
and subdivided it into small farms for the returned soldiers.

(See State Lib.Study 19078900 ).
(20BNP Index) EO-H 080807.

MOORE, George Fletcher, 1798 – 1886. (Civil / Lawyer). Advocate General.
Acting Colonial Secretary etc.   “The founder in reality of the Colony, and so often forgotten.”

Born in Bond’s Glen, Donemana, County Tyrone, Ireland on December 10th,
Was the second son of Joseph Moore and Anne nee’ Fletcher.
He was educated at Foyle College, Londonderry and Trinity College, Dublin, (LLB. 1820), and practiced on the Irish Bar for six years.
George applied for a legal position to the Colonial Office for the new Swan River settlement was refused. He received letters from the Colonial Office and Irish Lawyers who recommending him for a position so took passage on the “Cleopatra” Brig in 1830 arriving in Fremantle in October accompanied by four servants and shackles.
He obtained a grant of land on the Upper Swan River, naming the property “Millendon”
he was awarded this grant for services to the colonists.
He became a sheep farmer rearing Marino sheep in 1832 with 44 animals, by 1836 his
flock numbered 800 of fine wool plus a leased farm in York area, and owned 24,000
acres, including valuable town allotments.
Original Farm:-
Lot. 5a, Originally owned by William Lamb 01- 10 -1829 named “Seaton Farm” of
8,119 acres, 50% to G. F. Moore November 1830 of 4,059 acres, named his farm
“Hermitage” but later re named it “Millendon”.

From his origin to the Colony he kept a diary and journals these were published in 1834
and 1884, he also became aware of the plight of the Aboriginals and concern for them,
learnt their language and customs, publishing two books including a vocabulary, dictionary on them in 1837 and 1842.

In 1830 he described the monster “Waugal” in his writing, living in the Swan River as
“an imaginary aquatic monster, winged serpent with supernatural powers that could consume natives”.

By suggestion of Stirling in 1831 an Agricultural Society was formed, the Hon. Secretary
elected being Moore within a few months there were 40 members, holding meetings in Perth, later moving to Guildford the centre of agriculture.
In a letter written in 1832 to his relations in Ireland “”we see more of our friends here in a
week than you do in months at home” this was due to the layout of land grants being long and narrow in the 10 miles between Guildford and Upper Swan, there were over 40 odd farms along the river.

Regarding the Natives, in his Diary “at this time the Natives were friendly and helpful”
“This happy state of affair changed for the worse” Moore allowed the local natives to continue using his land for hunting and collecting wild yams for food, many other settlers shot the natives. The result of this folly in November 1830 a barracks was built, the soldiers we manned it were ex Van Diemens Land (Tasmania) the “lowest of society” who made a sport of killing natives, Captain Irwin commanding Officer with good intentions seemed to make things worse.

Moore had many meetings with “Yagan” the outlaw, he visited “Millendon” along with the “Weeip’s” tribe where Moore tried to explain the white man’s law and “Yagan” the
Aboriginal law. In July 1833 “Yagan” was shot while unarmed by William Keats an 18
year old youth who was then speared by natives. Moore and numerous settlers were not amused including the “Perth Gazette” by the treatment of the Aboriginals.

Moore in his book of 1834 wrote regarding the impact of “Yagan” would have on the future history of Western Australia.
Another item of Native history concerned “Weeip” in 1834 a report from natives up north of a ship wreck, “Weeip” being friendly with both Moore and Constable Parker was sent up the coast to investigate the claim, he found no trace of the wreck. Sterling rewarded “Weeip” in September as promised by Moore, in a pardon to his son “Billy-yoo-merry”
who was only a witness to a murder and in jail, Sterling also gave the natives presents and flour after which the tribe was friendly to the settlers “Weeip” became “Governor
Weeip” of his tribe.

In September of 1833 George Moore was fed up with stupid disputes by settlers as he was the Commissioner of Civil Courts, saying “settling disputes in court was a waste of time and money” and proposed a Committee of Arbitration to solve the settlers minor disputes. He had held the first Jury trial in June of 1832.
In 1834 Samuel Moore his brother came out on the “Quebec Trader” and purchased “Oakover” at Middle Swan,
Swan Lot 1. former owned by Ensign D. Mc Leod, 1,900 acres transferred to Ensign R. Dale 20-10-1830 then to Samuel Moore in 1834.
He later purchased Swan Lot I. ”Spring Mount” from William Dixon 29-09-1829 of
2,268 acres on 08-09-1844 and named it “West Oakover” as it was on the western bank of the Swan River.

As an explorer he traced the Swan and Avon Rivers, in 1831 with Ensign Dale explored
the York district, 1835 went north, May 1836 explored the Moore River area, Along with Peter Broun and George Leake explored north and east of Northam.
In 1839 he was sent on an expedition to explore the coast around Champion Bay and Point Moore also on up to Houtman Abrolhos area. (Two items being named after him).

On February 10th. 1832 the first Legislative Court was established consisting Captain Irwin, Mr. Broun, Lt. J. S. Roe and Moore, being the fore runner of government in Western Australia, this occurred by the King granting Stirling in January the appointment as Governor and empowered him to set up a Legislative Council with the ability to levy duties and taxes it also terminated the Free Grant system for lands.
Moore was sworn in as Commissioner on the 17th.Moore was also appointed Advocate General. This appointment made him a member of the Legislative Council doing much useful work as a parliamentary draftsman. He also acted as the Commissioner of Works in building and planning the city roads and buildings. In 1838 with J.S. Roe, Surveyor General they determined the site for the Perth Causeway.

The First Census was held in 1837 in it G. F. Moore was listed as a “Gentleman Farmer”
with 190 sheep with 16 other farming neighbors only one other having sheep, Richard Edwards the rest cultivated wheat and employed up to a dozen people, in the same locality was a mill, blacksmith and laundry.

More problems arrived for Moore with the arrival of Dr. Giustiniani in February 1836, with his wife and two catechists (both German) one being Frederick Waldeck they arrived on the “Addingham” arriving Fremantle June 26th. to set up a church, the doctor
Being quite ill on arrival, he had a letter of introduction from the Mission Society, London to obtain free land to set up a church with Moore to act as agent for the church plus obtain Governor Stirlings support. Moore obtained the only land available in Middle Swan where the Anglican church of St. Mary now stands. There were two houses on the property at this time one became the “Chaplains Cottage” the other a school.
The Chaplain was visiting up York when Messer Bland and Trimmer shot Aboriginals,
Stirling sent the Advocate General Moore to investigate into the shooting, in his report
Moore stated it was a trap set up to murder them, Stirling did nothing; the Church in London, local and English papers made a hue and cry over the matter, including Lord
Glenelg the Secretary for Colonies. Sterling being told “any act of injustice or violence
against natives will be dealt with the utmost severity”. Due to the letter writing by the
Chaplain they and catechists were not to popular with some with false accusations brought against the latter which Moore cleared in court. This was not the end of the matter as Dr. Giustiniani’s pen provoked more trouble, Moore being with Mackie on
the Corresponding Committee ended up having the doctor terminated, given 50 pounds to leave the Colony in discrace.

By the time Stirling was to leave in 1839, Moore wrote “ Stirling has become more and more popular every day, contrary to what is usual”.

In 1840 he went on leave to see his aged father in Ireland, granted leave by the Governor while he was away Governor Hutt told Henry Trigg to inspect Moore’s property on the corner of St. Georges Terrace and Irwin Street, the stables being empty, he did so on August 21st. with a report that they could be converted to a hospital sick-ward for a minimum cost. The take over was without his knowledge though he was paid a lease rental, the site was taken over for the Colonial Hospital officially in September.

By 1841 the Swan District had three permanent brick-stone churches, Perth had none,
mainly through the influence of Irwin, Mackie and Moore all staunch and fervent Anglicans.

Samuel Moore built the first bridge across the upper Swan` river in 1844 off “Oakover
Farm” to cross to his property on the west bank, he also leased the Steam Saw and Flower
Mills owned by the Bank of Australasia.
In 1846 he was appointed to act for Peter Broun, as Colonial Secretary after Broun’s death he continued to act plus the legal duties of state till the new secretary was appointed.

1846 October 29th he married Fanny Mary Jane Jackson, (1814 – 1863), stepdaughter of the new Governor Clarke, who became ill and died in 1847, which put more work onto his shoulders doing the Governors work as well.

In 1850 a devastating bush fire burnt his neighbor Irwin’s property “Henley Park” plus Irwin’s former manager Edwards Farm, Moore’s vineyards were also threatened and partly destroyed.

From late 1850 with convict labour new bridges and roads, government buildings and
the new hospital were being constructed he being one of four land owners who supplied carts and stock to transport material for the construction work.

In 1852 he was granted leave again to visit his father a misunderstanding
occurred with the Colonial Office over leave and pay causing Moore to resign, he did not
return to the colony, having been treated un fairly.

After his wife died October 25th. 1863 he lived alone in London, he died in Kensington on December 30th. 1886, a constant supporter of All Saint’s Church, Upper Swan a memorial to him is on the church wall


(Moore G. F. Diary “10 Years of Eventful Life of an early Settler in W.A. [1st Edition 1884] U.W.A.P. Nedlands.) .
(State Lib. of W.A. Journals CO323/134. Battye Library))
(History of Swan, Guildford, re Guildford Museum)
(Department of Lands Administration Acc.no. 660A) unpublished.).
(Shire of Swan Papers, Vols.1. to 16. Acc.no.58A. unpublished.)

(Swan census 1837, Acc.no.36A. Unpublished.).
(Parliament papers Gt. Britain, Colony of Australia series 34 Vols. London).
(Government Gazette 1836 on Held by W.A.Gov. Print.)
(Leg Council 2Wm IV. No.1.Battye Library.).

EO-H 141007.



SISTER, NICOLAY Mary; 1850 – 1939. (Civil & Military). (State Library Journal)

Sister Mary Nicolay was born in Chealsea, London on August 2nd. 1850; she had 5

Brothers and 2 sisters; the family came out to W.A. her father the Rev. C.G. Nicolay a
fellow of Kings & Queens Colledge of London he took the post of Chaplain at Geraldton.
They came out on the sailing ship “Lady Louise” in April 1870, and remained in Geraldton till 1874 till father took the post of Chaplain at Fremantle Prison.
Mary did not come out to W.A. with them as she had started her training with the Kings
Colledge Hospital and St. Thomas Hospital in London, under the founder of the school of
Florence Nightingale as a probationer, in 1876 she finished her training and later came out to W.A. on hearing of her mother’s ill health in 1882.
In 1890 she was appointed Matron of the Colonial Hosapital by Colonial Surgeon Dr.
Whelan , the resident Dr. was Slowman there were four nursing staff one of which a
local girl Miss Rule being trained by Mary, the oher three emigrant girls; Mary stayed
as Matron for two years at a wage of 60 pounds. The hospital also had a cook and an
orderly; in 1890 average daily occupancy of patients both male and female of 22.
Mary organized the first training school for Nurses in W.A. and was the first qualified
Nurse in W.A. hospital system; any further assistants being sent from Fremantle Jail.
She left in 1892 and returned to England returning again in 1897 to open a private
Hospital in Brisbane Street.
At the beginning of the Boer War she formed and led the West Australian part of the
Queen Alexandria Imperial Nursing Service of 1899 – 1902, They treated over 700 wound soldiers, later W.A. nurses joined forces with the South Australian Contingent, one W.A. nurse died on active service, 606 soldiers died of wounds, illness or disease. Prior to going out to South Africa a reception was given to them funds raised by local councils for the passage and a big fuss made of the forthcoming enterprise however once aboard ship they were made outcasts classed as steerage passengers and had to supply their own food and linen for the voyage which was beyond their means, the voyage and conditions were described as dreadful on arrival in South Africa the British Nursing Service also ignored them, so many returned to Australia as steerage passengers those without means stayed to nurse under the British Nursing Service but not as a group
eventually forming their own nursing service returning to Western Australia by sea after the war.
After the War she returned to Perth, Dr. Lovegrove appointed her as a member of
The Government Services at first as Relief Nurse then later as Relief Matron of Government Hospitals in 1907 till she retired in 1917; she was relief to all country hospitals from Broome to Albany and Esperance to Kalgoorlie and every place between.
On retiring she still visited Perth Hospital weekly, on Wednesdays giving advice to nurses where she could, every Sunday she attended St. Georges Cathedral and twice weekly attended the Literary Institute; Mary was a great reader, a stern disciplinarian
who expected and demanded the highest standards from her nurses, due to her own upbringing , education and nursing training.
Mary died on October 15th. 1939, in her 90th year after a life of devotion to the
profession she loved, she was admired and respected by hospital staff and always
proudly wore the Florence Nightingale Uniform when on duty and used Nightingales book of 1860 “Notes On Nursing” as her guide.

BOWE, Ethel Jessie, (1906 – 1961). (Civil & Military).
(See Dept. of Defence.Canb; AANS Records & RAANC Records also Melbourne Hospital nursing records & Perth Hospital nursing records).

Ethel was born on May 27th May 1906 at Maldon, Victoria fifth of eleven children of
father Abraham James Bowe a bricklayer and mother Edith Jane nee Dorman both Victorian born. She attended Maldon State School worked in the local hospital and trained as a nurse at Melbourne Hospital May 1st. 1927 – May 10th.1930, four year certificate completed in May 16th.1931, midwifery at Queen Victoria Hospital, she
then was appointed sister on February 8th. 1932, in September 1934 received her certificate for Diet training.

Joined the Australian Army Nursing Service Reserve in 1931 while employed at Melbourne Hospital. Left Melbourne on April 18th 1935 and became a tutor-sister at Perth Hospital in May, 1935 – 1938 under Matron McNevin, returning to Melbourne in January of 1939 was re appointed as a sister in charge of Wards 14/15 on March 6th 1939
till she left on January 1st. 1940 to take up her Military duty with the A.A.N.Service.

On December 19th. 1939 appointed sister of A.A.N.S. she was called up in March 1940
for service with the A.I.F. In May she sailed for the Middle East in charge of 32 nurses
Of the 2nd/2nd. Australian General Hospital, they were diverted to England and attached
to the A.G.Hospital at Godalming, Surrey during the period of the Battle of Britain.
Posted to Egypt in December at the A.G.H. at Kantara, from April to June 1941 as the
Temporary Matron, she helped establish the 2nd/11th. A.G.H. at Alexandria with huge amounts of casualties from North Africa, Greece and Crete. She became Matron of the 2nd./2nd. A.G.H. in September and returned to Australia in March 1942 after three months leave returned to her unit at Watten, Queensland.

Awarded the A.R.R.C. Associate Royal Red Cross (1944) for capable administration.
March 1943 was transferred as a Major to Melbourne as assistant to the Matron-in –Chief
promoted to temporary Lieutenant Colonel and appointed Principal Matron for the Advanced Land Headquarters in February 1945, based on Morton Island from April to
November and was awarded the American Bronze Star in 1948.
Heidelberg, Melbourne the following March held the additional post of principal Matron
for the Southern Command.

Bowe left for Europe by sea in November with prisoners of war plus internees, German and Italian for their repatriation. On arrival in England her enlistment had terminated with
the A.A.N.S. in January 1948.Later in 1948 went to Austria with the I.R.O. International Refugees as Chief Nurse where she stayed till 1950 returning to be Matron of the Austin Hospital in Heidelberg Victoria.

Ethel re joined the Army Military in June 1951 and was appointed Matron-in-Chief of
the Army Nursing Corps given rank of Honorary Colonel on September 17th 1952, she
made the Corps the best, unequalled in the British Commonwealth.

Awarded the Florence Nightingale medal in 1953. (FN).
The Royal Red Cross medal in 1955. (RRC).

In 1957 was appointed as the Honorary Nursing Sister to H.M. Queen Elizabeth 11.

In 1960 was awarded the Order of the British Empire (OBE).

“Bowie” as she was known throughout the Army was smitten with cancer in 1956 and
died on October 13th 1961 in the Repatriation General Hospital Heidelberg, following the Anglican service with full military honors at Christ Church, South Yarra where she was cremated.

EO-H 050907.


JEWELL, Richard Roach, ( Architect /Superintendent Public Works.), (1810 – 18910.)

Richard Roach was born in Barnstable in Devon, England the son of John Jewel and his wife Margaret (nee Roach), after attending the local school he was apprenticed to an

Architect and builder also in his local town working on many local buildings, including
churches, the local college and military fortifications plus the military prison.

Richard married Eliza Jane Arthur, she was a very frail person after their first child was born he decided to take her to a more temperate climate. They migrated to Western Australia and arrived at Fremantle on the “Will Watch” on February 24th. 1852.
Two sons and four daughters were later born in Western Australia.

Richard was employed at first by the building section of the Convict Establishment, but he transferred to the Department of Public Works, becoming foreman in January 1853, being paid 150 Pd. Sterling per annum, which was a lesser salary than his previous employment however prospects were better he also moved from Fremantle to Perth
with his new work.

Governor Charles Fitzgerald then appointed him to act as Superintendent of Public Works plus the supervisor of the towns of Fremantle and Perth plus the surrounding district suburbs. The “Perth Gazette” of July 8th. 1853 printed an item regarding the
employment of “a foreman of works” needed careful supervision where large amounts of public money was being spent.
Jewell’s talents in the control of finance was well exercised in the next few years with the
financial stringency of the Colonial Government who’s policy was to make do and mend.
rather than build new buildings. At first his work mainly consisted of repairing buildings
roads and bridges plus supervising the building of the two boys schools in Perth and Fremantle.
With the influx of transportation of convicts brought more labour plus greater prosperity
to the Colony, Richard then started to take part in the design of major buildings in Perth,
the court-house and jail being the first using the lime-stone quarried at Fremantle this
being transported up river by barges, this became a costly project which he soon replaced
by bricks made by James Brittain in East Perth.
All his brick buildings were built in the distinctive style of chequered brick-work which was his signature.

In Perth he built Perth Town Hall, Pensioner Barracks, Perth Hospital, (designed 1850 tenders 1853 and completed 1855). Wesley Church, Public Trust Office, Treasury Building, and Cloisters, the 2nd Causeway Bridge built by convicts opened in 1865.
Beside design he also supervised work under construction plus routine office work, for most of his 32 years in office in the Colony he was the only qualified architect.
Up country he designed and built Toodyay Jail & Hospital, 1852 -1856, Roebourne Residency and Police Station, Greenough Police Station 1863-1868, Geraldton Residency, Geraldton Hospital.
Closer to home in Guildford and Swan he designed and built many buildings.
The Reverend Chaplain W.D. Williams in 1858 applied to the governor for a new church, St Matthews the foundation laid by Mrs. Kennedy, governors wife in March 1860. The church was the first church designed in the Colony to be built in the Gothic style, it was greatly admired for its highly ornamental exterior, and proposed as the model
for a new cathedral to be built in Perth. The entire church was destroyed in the hurricane
of 1872.

Governor Hampton was determined to have built as many buildings as possible before the end of convict labour in 1867.Some of which were the Government Schools completed in early 1862, Mechanics Hall, Guildford completed 1865 also in the 1860’s in Guildford the Court House, the Helena Bridge, the Government Boys School (now part of Guildford Primary School), the other school at Fremantle and the new St. Mary’s Church at Middle Swan.
In 1866 a new Court House this partly built by private contractors and convicts opened January 1867.
Governor Hampton left in November 1865 recalled to London, many buildings remain a reminder of him, the convict workers and talented Clerk of Works, R. R. Jewell.

The new government in May 1869 sent Jewell to examine the Darling Ranges for the most practical route for a railway line to York, on his return a report was written and published giving details of the route he had suggested, which passed through Guildford and the Helena Valley to Chidlow‘s Well, Spencer’s Brook and York; filed and forgotten,
however later the Eastern Railway at a much later date used chose a similar route.

1875 he was commissioned to design and build the new main two storey orphanage, completed 1876, also of Gothic design. In 1878 he designed the new Primary School at Middle Swan.

At times he was acting Director of Public Works and Commissioner for Railways.
He retired with a liberal pension as Superintendent of Public Works in 1884.
His wife died on July 19th. 1884 he died at his home in Belvedere, Perth on June 1st. 1891.

(R. R. Jewell letter books 1855 – 1861, A523 & 1852 – 1884 CSO State Library of Western Australia.).

EO-H 131007.


Miss. KEOGH, Clara Ann, Nurse/ Assistant Matron.
(Civil & Military.) (21- 6 – 1914 to 09 – 10 – 2006.)

Miss Clara Ann Keogh was born in Ashton-Under-Lyne, England, and came out with
her parents to Western Australia, she attended “Star of the Sea” school in Cottesloe, passing her leaving examinations Standard V11 in 1929.
After leaving school she was employed as a shop assistant.

She enlisted in to the Royal Australian Air Force on February 18th. 1942 as an “Aircraftwoman” and was made a sick quarters attendant. In 1943 was re classed as
Nursing orderly and became a corporal on December 1st. 1943, promoted to sergeant
From August 1st. 1944 to when she was demobilized on November 22nd. 1945. Her time
in the Air force made her become a nursing trainee.

She was required to sit an exam held by the Nurses Registration Board before she was allowed to commence her Nurses training at Perth Hospital on June 17th. 1946, she graduated as a registered nurse on July 22nd. 1949. with General Nursing Certificate
Number, 1867 and was registered with the Nursing Board on July 29th. with certificate
Number 3722.

She was employed as a Staff Nurse in Surgical Ward 42, Perth Hospital, traveling to Sydney to gain her Midwifery certificate from Crown Street Hospital, between November
1949 and August 1950. Further studies continued at Karitane Mothercraft Training Centre in Sydney, certificate issued in August 1951.
Returning to Royal Perth Hospital as Night Superintendent till 1955 when she went to
England and Wales There registering with the General Nursing Council in August as Registered Nurse No. 228857. Returning to her former employment at Royal Perth in December.

Miss Keogh attended her Nursing career in several posts in Royal Perth and Shenton Park
Annex, as Administration Sister plus further time as Night Superintendent after attending a Nursing Administration Studies course at New South Wales College of Nursing in February 1965 receiving her diploma in September of that year.

Her final years were spent at Royal Perth Hospital as Assistant Matron retiring on
December 25th. 1977 after 31 years of dedicated service to Nursing in Western

She died on October 10th 2006, in Perth.

(R.P.H. Museum Docs.)

EO-H 101007.

Dr. WAYLEN, Alfred Robert, M.D. (1833 – 1901).

He was born in Western Australia at Point Walter. He was named after his father a land owner who came out to the Colony on the sailing ship “Skerne” of 121 tons departing Liverpool in early August 1829 arriving in Fremantle on January 1st. 1830 along with one other passenger, Mr. Butler his partner in business. His wife nee Elizabeth Bailey, did not accompany him, he later returned to England on the sailing ship “Nimrod” with 4 other passengers on July 2nd. 1831, after receiving his land grants; then returning to Fremantle on the “Cornwallis” on June 18th.1833 along with his wife, and 6 other passengers, his wife being pregnant at this time, for a time residing at Point Walter on the southern banks of the Swan River, where Alfred Waylen Junior was born. Half a kilometer east a district now known as Attadale has two locations that still bear fathers name Point Waylen and Alfred Cove from early
1830’s. (State Records & Ship Voyage lists, Battye Lib.)

His father was issued land permits in April and May 1830 for 36 and 784 acres of land on the Swan River and the following January a further 12,573 acres on the Avon River,
known as Location 4 and 11.
Waylen Senior and family moved to the country acreage in the Toodyay valley however they did not stay in the country district, having had numerous attacks by native aboriginals on their farm. Waylen senior brought his flock of sheep from York to Toodyay in 1837 he had two soldiers plus the sheep herders as protection, on arrival natives attacked them, in the ensuing melee several natives were killed.
Location 4 known as “Woodendale” was sold to Edward Hamersley and Samuel Phillips,
Later Location 11 was sold to Peter Belches, selling price at 1s 6d to 2s 6d per acre.
(History of Newcastle, Toodyay Museum Docs.)

Waylen Senior and family moved to the “island” village of Guildford in 1838 and purchased a property near a landing stage also on the Swan, the property of “Garden Hill” here he set up a trading store, produce being transported by river craft to and from Fremantle then trans ship to and from England. The “Garden Hill” property was purchased from George Williams who owned an inn on the site plus 1,301.5 acres, Waylen Senior set up a shop cum trading store the second one opened in the Colony. Lot No. 2257 B. The other store was owned by Captain Pratt a merchant and ship owner
(State Records permit. 13333B & 2257B. Returns of Lands to June 1837.).

The future doctor when 8 years old in 1841, when he was taken to England to be educated, later returning to the Swan Colony before setting out once again to learn a trade as a licentiate apothecaries and later as licentiate in midwifery of the Royal College of Surgeons at St. Andrews University, Edinburgh between 1856 and 1858. His medical degree granted in 1858 was the first ever issued to a native born West Australian.
(Australian National University Melbourne, Biography Dictionary.).

He then returned and set up a practice as the resident doctor in 1859 at Guildford and as the colonial medical officer for Swan District. He was also appointed as surgeon to the convict establishment in Guildford and the Pensioner Guards and families established in the same area, Charles Clifton was the Superintendent, Waylen was also resident Justice of Peace for the Swan District. He made his home at the back of his father’s house “Garden Hill”. In 1890 the original buildings were demolished, ( house and store), and a new large house was built, the property had a detached servant’s quarters plus a large ball room at the rear with verandas along the northern side of the house overlooking the river. A few yards below, adjacent to the east and river were his original vines. Waylen resided here till he died in 1901.

In 1861 on October 5th. the Swan Volunteer Rifle Company was set up with Governor Kennedy’s approval, Lt. Thorold took command and Waylen was elected secretary of the
Organization, the Corps ceased to exist for a while as Lt. Thorold was recalled to England in April 1862, come 1874 the new permanent Corps was re established.

In 1865 the Mechanic’s Institute was built designed by Richard Jewell for providing instruction to tradesmen, Brockman was President, Dr. Waylen, Dr. Viveash and Samuel Barker vice presidents.
The first meeting was held on March 14th. 1862 in the new government school, meetings,
discussions or musical groups were held weekly. When the new building opened a
lending library was installed. The building was used the first year of opening to hold the
first Agricultural Show. Waylen and Ferguson attended, the show itself held opposite the building on the Stirling Square Park. The show in future years moved to Perth.

The Guildford Town Trust was revived Dr. Waylen who was elected as its Chairman, with seven committee members and a paid clerk to collect taxes of 10 shillings per allotment per annum as rates, a new jetty complete with crane and new roads were built due to the Trust.

It should be noted that if you were anyone of note or wealthy Guildford was the place to live due to its cooling breezes from the river, to name a few. In 1897 Charles Crossland surveyor for the new Midland Railway built a turreted house on Stirling Square; named “Earls Ferry” for J. T. Short Commissioner of Railways; “Daylesford” for Director-General Cyril Jackson; Charles King who built “Fairholme” and Charles Harper who built “Woodbridge in 1895 which later originated in the founding of Guildford Grammar School to educate the “well-to-do” resident off-spring of the area. Besides education
they needed entertainment George Hiscox who built the “Freemasons Hotel” built the
“Vaudeville Theatre” in 1896. (Guildford History/ Museum Docks.)

On November 20th.1862 he married Elizabeth Louisa daughter of John Wall Hardey, M.L.C.

1866 Melbourne Inter-colonial Exhibition: Dr. Waylen was listed as one of Western
Australia’s principal wine makers along with Dr. Ferguson, W. Harris and J. Hardey. Governor Hampton encouraged the growth of the wine industry however London’s Colonial Office tried to stop its growth by imposing trade and production restrictions.

A new Court House was built in 1866 designed by Jewell, opened in January 1867 a Ball given by Dr. Viveash and Dr. Waylen was attended by 200 guests.
Under Waylen’s Town Trust streets were cleared, leveled and macadamized, drains laid
with pavements of slabs Stirling Square was cleared of tree stumps, planted with couch
grass and fenced. He also appointed a Town Crier and Town Herdsman to look after the
local cattle on the 90 acres of Common Land.

A new Act was passed in the Colony to check the credentials of future doctors. Waylen
was appointed to the Medical Board in January 1870 to check these personnel for eligibility for registration enabling them to practice in the Colony. He himself under the new Law of the Act passed in July of 1869 was registered on December 30th 1869.

In 1870 the Swan District Roads Committee held elections with the intention of taking over the district however in the election Dr. Waylen and 5 other committee members all from Guildford were elected the Swan colony were unimpressed which came to a head when Guildford became a Municipality in February 1871 . Dr. Waylen also being transferred to Perth as Colonial Surgeon. Two Committee members Brockman died and Dr. Viveash resigned. as Magistrate gone were the three main public leaders.. .
In 1872 at the age of 39 on August 1st. Waylen was appointed to succeed Dr. John Ferguson as Colonial Surgeon, director of the Perth Colonial Hospital, medical officer of the Perth Prison’s system, plus superintendent for the state’s vaccination. (Colonial Secretary Office Battye Library)

He was obsessed with standards of hygiene and cleanliness. In his first year he changed
numerous things at the Colonial Hospital the first thing was to have installed bath rooms to each ward and turn one ward into an operating theatre, added external stairs to wards
plus balconies, to enable slops to be removed from the wards and so patients could benefit from cooling fresh air. (R.P.H. Docs.).

In 1874 he was attacked by the convict run newspaper “Herald” regarding fee paying patients, for the hospital the paper stated that fee paying patients would be much better treated and that the hospital was supposed to be for the poor not the rich.
Waylen ignored the criticism and continued to admit private patient to the hospital and was not impressed at all with the “Herald” news paper.
In 1882 he had a private ward built. (Bat. Lib. Col. Newspapers )

In 1874 – 1875 he also assisted the setting up of the Swan Boys Orphanage off Yule Road, Middle Swan adjacent to the Church of St. Mary’s Anglican of 1840, re built in 1879. A second building built was named after him, the first building named Brown after the founder, Archdeacon Brown the manager, both were designed by Jewell. This area of buildings is now known as Swanleigh Hostel.

In May 1880 the new railway proposed a terminal be built to go through the town square. A meeting was held with Dr. Waylen, and James Morrison versus J.H. Thomas the new
Commissioner of Railways on an alternate route; which after many arguments saved
Stirling Square, the result produced the terminal and foundation of Midland Junction.

In 1883 – 1884 he chaired a Royal Commission into the welfare and conditions of native
Prisoners on Rottnest Island. The Aborigines Protection Board was formed in 1886
during the negotiations for a responsible government he was appointed as chair man, he
being responsible to the imperial government.

During 1884 – 1885 he chaired another Royal Commission on the Perth Metropolitan
water-supply and sanitation and implemented its findings as president of a new central
Board of Health. (Col. Sec.Off. Bat. Lib.).

After the death of his first wife he re-married Louisa daughter of the Rev. Thomas Walpole and widow of Sir Luke Leake, M.L.C. on June 2nd. 1887; Leake had been the
Speaker of the Legislative Council. He did not have any children by both marriages.

Among other things he did locally in Guildford he was chairman of the Town
Council, a church warden of St. Matthew’s Church (which was re-built in 1873 the
original church being destroyed by a cyclone the year before) was the founder of the Guildford Mechanics Institute for all trades people; and the Governor of Perth High School now known as Hale School.

Like everyone else of influence he owned horses including race horses and was a member
of the West Australian Turf Club.

From early on he was into vigneron a keen grape vine grower and became an authority on wines and through his knowledge he was asked by the constabulary to go up to York and analyze the liquor from the “York Hotel” of both Brandy and Rum due to complaints.
Both passed his tests though they were not of the best quality.
From 1866 he entered international exhibitions. Later in 1887 he was made a commissioner for the Colonial Exhibition and Conference held in London and in 1894 was made the president of the second conference which dealt in Defence, Trade and Communication.

In October 1895 he became the first Medical Officer of Perth Public Hospital, a new appointment brought about by Sir John Forrest’s government who changed the system. He consulted Waylen regarding the hospital being run by the government and a board on the same lines as Queensland’s Brisbane Hospital. He agreed that the system could work for Perth, so Forrest with the aid of his ministers put forth the new Hospital Bill which helped him win the election. Waylen was 60 years old at this time and was looking for ward to his retirement which he did a few weeks later, and the Colonial Hospital was now the peoples Public Hospital.

Waylen retired and went off to cultivate his vineyards.

He became President of both the Agricultural Society and the Horticultural Society and after retiring in 1895 he set up with J.G. Amherst the Darlington vineyards which won awards in Sydney for wines and the best Australian grown raisins.
He passed away at Guildford on January 10th. 1901, and was buried at the Church of England cemetery. His estate was left to his wife and relations from both marriages.

He was not a highly scientific medical practitioner but brought about many public health
reforms which helped change the hospital system, the plight of the Natives and the sanitation to the public of Perth making the government aware of future problems with
disease unless they adopted his recommendations.

He had no purpose for the new invention telephone in Perth in 1887 insisted that he did not want one in his hospital he employed a capable messenger boy Michael Healey, eventually he was forced by the Government to accept the installation after holding out for five years forced by intervention of Winthrop Hackett of the Legislative Council.
He installed a grounds-man come watchman who would keep two whale oil lamp at the
Hospital main entrance serviced, they actually gave only a feeble dull glow, smoked up
constantly but in his opinion were a welcome sign to the building.

His autocratic attitude to private practitioners use of the hospital facilities and access to
their patients plus records did not go down well at all with Perth’s doctors, his attitude was the hospital was his absolute domain and that was that.

During his tenure he was responsible for recruiting female nursing staff, uniforms, built new wards, introduced the isolation wards and isolation hospital, private wards, new laundry system, gas mains for cooking and lighting, running water mains, bath rooms and toilet sewerage system at the Colonial/Perth Hospital.

When away on leave in England his deputy Dr. Thomas Lovegrove, Acting Colonial Surgeon appointed Sister Mary Ann Nicolay as Matron in 1890 at 100 pounds a year
salary he was quite annoyed at this twice the wage her predecessor Ms. Isabella Miles was paid, he made things a bit uncomfortable for her which probably helped cause her to
resign first attempt after only six months as Matron in July 1891 eventually leaving
after 12 months service.

He constantly had problems with some staff, who would leave after a few months or be
terminated a problem with drunken staff, he would not entertain drunks either as patients, yet he admitted Aboriginals and Chinese into the Hospital as patients plus the poor and destitute and paying wealthy patients being criticized by local news papers for his admissions of patients.
Some staff adored him like the watchman, and the messenger boy who later became his

The Government through inspections complimented his Hospital and other establishments under his control in annual reports, were all kept spotlessly clean and well
ventilated his record books were written clear to understand and written in an orderly fashion.

As to the largest house in Guildford “Garden Hill” it was sold in 1942 as upkeep was to great. The Catholic Church purchased the property, removed the vines and built numerous buildings to train Catholic priests re naming the complex Saint Charles Seminary.

(All un itemized items information supplied by Guildford and Swan Museums also
Anglican and Catholic Church, regarding the Guildford Area.)
(All un itemized items regarding Perth Hospital from his records, files and letters
held at Royal Perth Hospital’s Museum.).

List of Photos , of Buildings connected with Waylen in Swan & Guildford Area. Plus
Government House, 2nd building.
1. Tailors cottage.1870, Meadow St. Guildford. N.E.view.
2. Tailors cottage, front view.
3. Town Bore on site of original spring, 1853, established by Lt. Cane.
4. Original dock landing @ Guildford now demolished.
4. St. Matthews Church, 1873.Stirling Park, Guildford.
5. Mechanics Institute, 1865.Meadow St. Guildford.
6. “Fearsome House” & stables, Market St.Guildford, later “Victoria Hospital”.
7. “Welbourne House” Market St, Guildford, also part of hospital.
8. “Garden Hill” 1840, Waylen’s house, Lot.94 Guildford,. Frontage east side.
9. “Garden Hill” 1840, Waylen’s house, southern side view.
10. Court House, Guildford, 1866, corner Meadow & Swan Streets.
11. Colonial Jail, 1841, rear view Meadow Street, Guildford.
12. Colonial Jail, frontage, 1841.
13. Pensioner Guard’s Cottage 1856, Surrey Street, West Guildford.
14. Waylen, Black & White photo.
15. Town Bore, 1853, Helena St. Guildford.
16. Kings Cottage, & 1st. Cobbler Shop, 1860, Meadow St. Guildford.
17. Garrick Theatre & Commissariat Store, 1850 Meadow St. Guildford; N.E. View.
18. Lt. Du Cane House, April 1852; Meadow St. Guildford, N.E. View.
19. Moultons Landing, Established pre 1840 & Bankers Bridge, Swan River.
20. Garden Hill, northern View, Waylen House.
21. St. Marys Church 1840, West View, Yule Road. Middle Swan.
22. St. Marys Church interior.
23. First Orphanage, Swan Boys, 1874; & Waylen House 1875, Yule Road, M.Swan.
24. All Saints Church, 1841, Henry St. Henley Brook, Swan. West View.
25. All Saints Church interior. 1st. Permanent Church in W.A.
26. Government House, Perth. Ball Room.
27. Government House, Dining Room.
28. Government House, Music Room Lounge,
29. Government Hose, Eastern Entrance, stair way..
30. Government House, east view.
31.Albany, Ship Amity replica, emigrant ship from NSW
32. Albany Jail & hospital, built 1851. E.O-H,290907.

Detailed Description of Pictures of Guildford & Swan.
All Saints Church. One of W.A oldest churches, the foundation stone was laid
Oct. 31st. 1839, the firs service in the church was held Jan. 19th. 1841, the bricks to
Build the church were hand made, and the timbers were pit sawn.

Ensign Dale discovered a spring in Gilford in1829 exploration, and formed a settlement,
he built his house there in 1852, opposite the spring is the oldest school in W.A.& 3rd.
oldest in Australia.

The Town Hall was built on the site of the Municipal Council, not built till1938,the
former offices were built in 1870, The Guilford Municipal Council amalgamated with
Swan Shire Roads Board in 1960, after 1970 it was no longer used, but is used as a theatre.

King Cottage & Shop located opposite Ensign Dales house was a boot maker, his son was the mail man between Guildford and Toodyay, stables at the back housed the coach
and horses for mail delivery.

Mechanics Institute, was formed in 1862, by the gentry of Swan district with the idea
of improving the education of local trade persons, was built in 1865, it was used for
public meetings, lectures, concerts and it had a public library.. It was the first public hall.

Moulton’s Landing and house, was leased from Capt. Richard G. Mears, next to the bridge there once stood a public wharf, for barges and other river craft stopping at Guildford from Perth and Fremantle, now demolished, agriculture produce from the country was loaded here, there was a ware house near by, with the coming of the railway in the 1880’s it all fell into disuse, Morton’s Cottage still stands.
Abraham Moulton was murdered in 1846, by a Malay, crew member off a ship taking
his sandal wood cargo Hong Kong.

St. Matthew’s Church, the first church on this site built in 1860, was demolished in a
bad storm in 1872 this church was re- built in 1873, it looks like the original church,

The Victoria Hospital, was a combination of Fearsome House and later Welbourne House, with stables behind Fearsome House, it was noted as a maternity hospital, it
closed in the mid 1940’s.

Swan Boy’s Orphanage was built by Waylen, in 1874 and part of it was named after him
and built the following year, it was the first state owned orphanage.

Garden Hill, Waylen’s House built in 1840 behind his fathers house who ran an inn and
trading post, later moving into his fathers house, which was bought from one George Williams, a few years earlier, Waylen’s office was on the south side of the house to the right of the main door way, the cool side facing the garden.


1829 – 1831, Dr. CHARLES SIMMONS, ( Born 1801 – 1831). Civil Gov.
Appointed first Colonial Surgeon of Western Australia on December 20th 1828 with a
salary of 15 pounds per day, arrived with the first colonists on June 3rd 1829, and erected a tent hospital on Garden Island.
He toured the surrounding district for sites for future settlements.
Born, Febuary 18th. 1802. Beverley, Yorkshire.
Died October, 21st 1831 aged 28. in Perth of consumption.
(See State Library Study).

1830 – 1834. Dr. WILLIAM LANE MILLIGAN, (MRCP,MRCS.). Military.
Born, February 1st 1795, Cavan, Ireland, Died, September 1st 1851, St. Johns Wood, London,
Enlisted in the Army in 1814 as a Medical Hospital Assistant.
February 1814, Commissioned as Assistant Surgeon to 82nd Regiment of Foot posted to
Mauritius.1819, leave granted to attend Edinburgh Medical University 1820 – 1822.
Wrote a thesis on the treatment of Cholera 1822.
1823 August 12th. married Elizabeth Sybil Lane in Marylebone Church.
Posted to 63rd Infantry Regiment, in 1829 sailed with the Regiment to Western Australia, became assistant to the Colonial Surgeon, on his death Milligan was appointed Acting Colonial Surgeon.
1834 April, the Regiment was posted to Madras, India.
1839 Returned to England, 1847 February retired from the Army.
(See Mil.Rec. WO 25/768 & 817. held PRO, Kew.).

1831 – 1835, Dr. ALEXANDER COLLIE, J.P. Naval. (See SLO. Study).
Born, June 2nd. 1793 at Wantonwalls farm, Insch, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Died, 1835, November 8th. 1835. Albany.
Medical educated Edinburgh and London, qualified January 1813.
Joined Navy first ship HMS. “Doris”.and “Gannet” “ he became interested in botany, mineralogy and chemistry and spent some time in Europe studying same. Returning to
Sea in 1824 HMS “Blossom” a voyage of discovery to Africa and the Americas, in Mexico the Mexican Jay was named after him, Calocitta Collie.
Appointed ships Surgeon on HMS “Sulphur”, arrived Western Australia in June 1829.
Explored the South West in company with Lt. Preston, Royal Navy, he named the
Preston and Collie Rivers in 1829.
On July 25th. 1830 he submitted a comprehensive report on the cause of sickness on Peel’s ill-fated settlement in the neighborhood of Clarence and prescribed measures to
alleviate it.
1831 Was resident Doctor at Albany and Justice of the Peace first W.A. Government resident in Albany till his appointment as Colonial Surgeon after the death of Dr. Simmons. While in Albany he explored the areas up to French River and King George Sound
Set up a permanent hospital in a rented house owned by Embelton.
He was not a well person suffering from T.B. he applied for leave en route to England
on board HMS. “Zebra” he died in Albany at George Cheyne’s house, Nov. 8th. 1835.

1835 – 1843, Dr. JAMES CRICHTON, Military & Civil.

Born, 1815, Scotland. Died, In 1845, England.
Educated at University of Glasgow, qualified as an MD. in 1835.
November 2nd.1835, Arrived with his wife on vessel “Joshua Carroll” in Fremantle,
Took up position of Assistant Surgeon.
Accompanied the surveyor-general on an expedition of exploration, 1836.

1840 Negotiations with Governor Hutt over a hospital was successful Lot A5.3/4 Irwin
Street, Moore’s Stable was made available, known as The Colonial Hospital after being renovated.
1840 Introduced vaccination to W.A. Medical system.
1841, Granted leave, 18 months Dr. Sholl took up his duties in his absence, went to India
As he was Medical Officer for the 5th. Infantry Regiment.
Granted leave of absence to visit England, sailed January 26th 1843 from Fremantle.
(See State Library Study ).

1843 – 1847 Dr. JOSEPH HARRIS, Civil.

Born, 1789. Died, May 25th. 1846.
Trained under Dr. Brown, 7 years at York, also Assist Surgeon for Army Medical
Board, served also as doctor at Bow Street, Hospital London.

Arrived January 27th. 1833, at Fremantle on vessel “Augnet”.
Purchased land from the southern part of Bland’s grant for 200 pounds on the left bank
of the Swan River, Harris became a pastoralist as well as the Colonial Surgeon in
July 1845, from Acting Colonial Surgeon on February 1843..
(State Library Study).

1802 – 1883. Dr. JOHN FERGUSON, MRCS. (See SRO.Study).

Born, 1802 in Dundee. Died, September 11th.1883, in Perth, buried in East Perth Cemetery.

Educated at Edinburgh, in 1822 he obtained his M.R.C.S. at College of Surgeons Edinburgh.
Practiced at Auchtermuchty, Fife.1828 to1835.
Married Isabella Maxwell of Dundee.

Arrived in Leschenault, on December 6th. 1842 on the vessel “Trusty” with his wife and
two children with intensions of farming in the new settlement of Australind settling at
“Wedderbum” as his home site, a farm at Brunswick Junction but his medical skill was soon in demand for a time he was also M.O. for the Australind Co;
On leaving for the Swan he sold out to a Mr. McAndrews.

In 1843 was made Resident Magistrate of the district. During the same year a detachment of soldiers from Tasmania with their families of 21st. Foot Regiment were
transferred to Western Australia they brought with them whooping cough which soon
spread into an epidemic among the native population, a second outbreak occurred in 1848
brought by ship “Empress” between 200 and 300 deaths occurred, a third breakout of the
whooping cough came in 1852 by which time Dr. Ferguson avoided many deaths by the
isolation of infected patients. Another epidemic which he had to cope with was diphtheria which occurred in 1865 and also the 1860 -61 epidemic of smallpox against which he
laboured to promote the use of vaccination and by 1878 an Act was passed which was aimed at the protection of small children, long after he had retired.

He is credited with the introduced of Chloroform to the hospital system in 1849, when he
amputated an aboriginals leg.
He was paid 70 pounds a year to attend the medical needs of Ticket-of-Leave persons in
the Bunbury region in 1853, the following year he did this at Mount Eliza.

In July 1869 the Acting Governor J. Bruce proclaimed an Act that any person practicing medicine were to register to practice medicine in Western Australia, John Ferguson as Colonial Surgeon was appointed the President of the three man examination Board.

Colonial Surgeon from 1847 when he moved to Perth till he sent in his resignation in June 1872 at 70 years of age, to retire effective from July 31st of that year.
While the doctor resided in Perth his house was situated on the corner of Hay Street and
William Street the site later became a department store Cox Brothers.

During office he was the visiting medical officers on the Perth – Fremantle Road project
of 1852.
He was a member of the Central Vaccine Board in 1861.
Immigration Agent and Poor House Officer in 1867.
On his retirement was awarded a pension of 216 pounds 13 shillings and 4 pence per annum.
Dr. John Ferguson purchased half the property of location 11 in Swan the section known as “Houghton” from Lowie, Houghton and Yule in 1859 the estate had a small vineyard,
He purchased same for 350 pounds, and in the same year Ferguson produced the first
commercial vintage of wine from the vineyard of 25 gallons.
The estate original was set up and owned by three British Army Officers and named after
their senior ranking officer Lt. Colonel Richmond Houghton, who never came to Western
Australia, for 23 years the estate was managed by Thomas Newte Yule.

Ferguson built a new homestead and converted the old homestead into a wine cellar.
The plans for the new homestead were brought from Scotland, it was built in two parts
The main house – a long rectangle surrounded by verandahs, including living quarters for the family. The stables building had a large kitchen, indoor animal area, and storage area
at the eastern end, the hand made bricks led to the foundation of the brick industry in the
Midland area.
In 1863 new vines were planted and he put his son Charles in charge of the property.
The main crop grown was wheat then a change to wards fruit orchards it was finally
decided to change and concentrate on wine and raisins.

In 1866 in the Melbourne International Exhibition he with Dr. Waylen, Williams, Harris and the Hardeys were classed as the principal winemakers.
1867 the outlaw “Moondyne Joe” was caught after escaping from Fremantle jail sampling
the doctors wine in “Houghton’s” cellars.

By 1912 “Houghton” had 130 acres under vines. (Original buildings are still in use).

Location - Swan No.11. Original Owner. -   Transfer To.      Date.     Acres.
                         R.H. Bland.         * * * *         29-9-1829 8,000.
    “Houghton” No. 11      * * *     Louis, Houghton & Yule. 1833.     4,000.
    “Strelley” No. 11A.    * * *     Dr. Joseph Harris.      1833      4,000.

A blacksmith shop was operated by one Alexander Ferguson known as “The Smithy” of
no known relationship to the doctor, between Albion Town and Ashby.

(Shire Guildford & Swan records, Guildford Museum.),
(See SRO, Study.).

1872 – 1895, Dr. WAYLAN Alfred Robert M.D. M.R.C.S.
Was the last Person to hold office as a Colonial Surgeon. (See SRO.Study).
Born 1833, Point Walter, W.A. Died, 1901 Jan. 10th. Guildford, W.A.

His parents emigrated to W.A. in 1830 arriving on the ship “Skerne”.
He was the first W.A. born to graduate in medicine, he was educated in England
Returning there in 1841 when 8 years old, later to attend university in 1856 he
attended St Andrews university qualifying as in M.D.1858.

In 1870 he became part of the Medical Board set up to check credentials of medical
personnel for registration in Western Australia.
In 1895 October he became the Principal Medical Officer (new appointment) for Perth
Public Hospital. He was also a J.P. in Swan District.
Later he became the President of W.A.’s Medical Association which later became the
W.A. Branch of the B.M.Ass.
He was a fanatic concerning sanitation and cleanliness brought on by his education in
London, here in W.A. he tried to convince the Perth City Council on improvements to
sanitation to fight disease.
In 1889 he was successful in having built a new surgical block of three wards for the
He was also interested in wine growing and owned a vine yard on the Swan River at
Guildford on his property “Garden Hill” which he inherited from his father.

1895 – 1906 Dr. LOVEGROVE, Thomas, JP, MRCS. (SRO.)

Was appointed Acting Colonial Surgeon.
Educated and trained in England.
During his period appointed first trained Nurses to Perth Hospital.
Helped establish the first Nurse training scheme.
First Principal Medical Officer of Perth Public Hospital
Establish the Board of Management to determine policies of Hospital. and
Future development.

Dr. LYTTLETON, John Prentergast. Acting Colonial Surgeon, (SRO.297)
Born. 1793. Died, Albany, May 10th. 1835. Age 42.
Arrived out on S.V. “Gilmore” with wife and two children, under Captain Meares, and Thomas Peel, the Swan River Pioneers of Peels Party with the intention of farming, however being a doctor his services were in constant demand. Sailed from St. Catharine Docks, London, July 18th. 1829, arrived December 15th 1829. Was sent to Albany October 1832 to relieve Dr. Collie as Acting Colonial Surgeon.
Took up grant of 2,560 acres in the Avon in 1832.
After his death his wife was Albany postmistress, later she ran McAdurah Marine Hotel.

MEDICAL PRACTISSIONERS appointed MAIN MEDICAL OFFICERS for Perth Hospital / Royal Perth Hospital. 1830 – 1946.

EO-H 0907.

Dr. GREEN Alfred
Born, 1805, England. Died, 1895, September 7th. At Northam.
Arrived out in Australia on March 12th 1830. on board S.V. “Warrior” as an
Assistant Surgeon to Dr. Koller .at Augusta.
1830 Appointed as Assistant Surgeon at Colonial Hospital
1831 To Vasse, 1856 To Toodyay as Resident Medical officer. 1870 To Northam,
Married 1844 August 8th, Ann Elizabeth Mc.Durmott, Born August 1811 Died
August 25th 1867 in Toodyay.
In 1830 assisted Dr. Milligan, in running two hospitals which led to his Hospital appointment in July 1830.

Dr. TYMMS, Herbert George, MB, BS, LRCP, MRCS, FRCS.
Appointed Chief Medical Officer December 1906 – 1911.
Born. Died.
Trained at Melbourne qualified 1894 and 1895.
London 1899 and 1901.
Was not impressed with Perth Hospital, set about changing the system.
Improvements to Laundry system, introduced the First steam laundry to the
Hospital system.
Introduced the Food Services, with trained catering staff.
Nurses Home “Kirkman House” built.
Shenton Park Hospital was annexed as the Fever Hospital.

Dr. WEBSTER Alfred, MD.
Born. 1911 – 1913. Appointed Medical Officer.
He was a very good doctor but a poor administrator.
A pioneer specializing in Cardiac arrhythmia, (heart).
A power struggle evolved between him the Board’s secretary, Matron and
Housekeeper. The Board requested he should retire in 1912; appealing against the
decision he eventually resigned in 1913.

Dr. SWEET Sidney. W. MD. (Civil & Military).
Born. Queenslander.
Educated in London.
1913 -1916, Appointed Medical Officer.
Not popular with staff which resulted in mass resignations plus suspensions of staff.
In 1916 he resigned and joined the Australian Army.
After the WW1 returned to his native Queensland.

Dr. BARKER Gilbert W. MD.
Educated / Qualified. Melbourne.
1916 – 1921 Appointed Acting Medical Officer.
He inherited an overcrowded hospital with a very unhappy staff problem due
to Dr. Sweet’s former ruling.
Dr. Barker was constantly battling with Government to relieve the overcrowding
Especially for Surgical and Female wards.
In 1918 he was appointed to permanent Medical Officer.
In 1920 he was so outraged by the lack of support from the government he
informed the press about the problems.
Outcome of which the Department of Military Repatriation constructed a three
Ward block for ex Service personnel, plus extensions to the Nurses Home and Colonial Buildings.
1921 October there was a name change to the Hospital, deleting the word “Public”
from its name, now known as “Perth Hospital”.
Dr. Barker resigned in November 1921.

Dr. MacKENZIE Donald, S. DSO, MBBS.
Trained and qualified in Sydney..
Trained, Melbourne 1926; MD Melbourne 1929; and England 1930
1931 – 1934. Appointed as Medical Officer.
Still problems with over crowding, and lack of finances Budget deficits.
In 1932 the Lotteries Commission was set up to aid Hospitals Departments
throughout the State from which Perth Hospital benefited.
The Board surrendered some of its freedom and control in the interest of
Moves were made for a proposal of a new construction of a 500 to 650
Patient Bed building.
After his resignation Dr. Stewart joined the Honorary staff as General
Surgeon serving for many years 1936 – 1961.
WW 11, Australian Army Lt. Col. AAMC, 1940 – 1945.
Scientific adviser to the WA Cancer Council, 1962 – 1968.
Knighted for contribution to Medicine.
. Johns.
1934 – 1936. Appointed as Medical Officer.
A consultant and lecturer for the University of WA.on Infectious Diseases; and Congress.
Author of Medical Journal items on “Cutaneous Carcinoma” skin Cancer, 1952. Consulting office was in West Perth.

Born. 1909. Died. February 1946. (In office).
His constant harassment of the government saw the building of “A” Block, the new hospital, but he unfortunately never saw its completion, in 1949.